Cyber threats are on the increase. Authorities need to respond to growing challenges by increasing cooperation. Information sharing or information exchange in the EU level and between the countries is a main facility when the objective is to prevent hybrid threats. Intensifying relationships with private sector companies has become very important function and operating model to authorities to provide cyber-safe atmosphere. The main purpose of this study is to find out separating and combining factors concerning cyber information sharing models. The aim is also to find out nation level factors, which affect the utilization of a common Early Warning system by the ECHO stakeholders.
Summary of findings: unclear allocation of responsibilities in national government departments prevents authorities from fighting together against cyber and physical threats. Cybersecurity responsibilities have been spread too widely. Operational work concerning cyber threat prevention between European public safety authorities should be more standardized, with more centralized management. When the purpose is to protect vital functions of society, public safety organizations in EU member states need proactive features in their information systems. An essential factor in information exchange is the place of registration of organizations or companies. Unclear standardization concerning cyber emergency procedures between authorities and organizations and lack of co-operation between cyber situation centres and cyber emergency response centres prevent common situational awareness.