"Transformation of Security and Intelligence Services in Latvia
." Connections: The Quarterly Journal
18, no. 3 (2019): 105-124.
Latvia had lost its statehood de facto in the years of the Soviet occupation. Its security structures during the Soviet period were established by an external, hostile force. Therefore, we cannot talk about the ‘transformation’ of Latvian security services in 1990 and 1991, but rather about ‘demolition’ and ‘rebuilding anew.’