Increasing incorporation of advanced information technologies makes business and public organisations more effective and efficient, while often introducing exploitable vulnerabilities. The efficient provision of security of interconnected, and interdependent, processes and sectors against cyberattacks requires deep understanding of vulnerabilities, exposure, potential negative impact, as well as the contribution existing and emerging organisational and technological solutions will potentially have on preventing attacks, reducing vulnerabilities, protecting digital infrastructures, response and recovery, and resilience. Such understanding will allow minimisation of risks against a spectrum of plausible cyber threats and reducing negative consequences of one or a series of cyberattacks.
Due to the complexity of the problem, the effective implementation of a number of functions and tasks in designing and operating distributed cyber secure and resilient systems require significant computational resources. This paper outlines six high-level, computationally demanding functions. The first three relate to the formulation and implementation of cybersecurity policy: understanding risk; planning and implementing cybersecurity measures; and continuous adaptation to the changing technological, threat and policy landscape. The other three functions are operational: situational awareness, including detection of cyberattacks and hybrid malicious activities; operational decision making, e.g. selecting a course of action under attack; and cyber forensics.