Russia’s intervention in Ukraine on February 24, 2022, once again brought into view the current variety of risks to Black Sea security. Lengthy diplomatic and political negotiations and statements made by NATO and primarily US authorities before Russia launched its military operation in Ukraine were not enough to deter Russia’s military action. It is considered that NATO’s reactions to deter Russia from operations in Ukraine have been insufficient due to NATO’s weakness in naval power projection capability to the Black Sea due to the Montreux Convention’s restrictions. Montreux Convention is recognized as the main international agreement that provides barriers to an efficient naval deployment from external sources to the Black Sea. This article examines the effects of the Montreux Convention on regional security within the framework of the historical background and the situations that threatened regional security in the past and reveals the importance of this convention for Black Sea security in the future.