NATO and Intermediate Force Capabilities: Why Human Effects Matter
." Connections: The Quarterly Journal
21, no. 2 (2022): 123-134.
On February 24, 2022, when Russia invaded Ukraine, the international order was impacted sharply and abruptly. Russia’s invasion put the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) on center stage. As a contribution to international security, NATO’s deterrence capabilities take many forms. From nuclear weapons to cyberattacks, to be effective, deterrence must be scalable across a conflict spectrum that includes non-kinetic actions.