Hybrid Threats in Bulgarian Media

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Information & Security: An International Journal, Volume 43, Issue 3, p.333-348 (2019)


Bulgaria, hybrid attacks, Hybrid threats, hybrid war, media, politics


The article presents the results of a recent study aimed at revealing how the term “hybrid threats” (or its synonyms “hybrid attacks,” “hybrid war,” etc.) is used in Bulgarian public discourse. 688 articles published by 188 media outlets were registered and processed by the method of content analysis. The results show that the term “hybrid threats” is mostly mentioned and not discussed in substance; it is often unclear what exactly the speakers mean by using the term “hybrid threats”; specific narratives are constructed, where the term “hybrid threats” is completely removed from its meaning by definition and loaded with different connotations.

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Last updated: Friday, 08 November 2019