Enhancing critical infrastructure protection and resilience has become a national security policy priority in many countries. World best practices demonstrate the need to build a system of critical infrastructure protection capable to prevent, mitigate and respond to all types of threats (i.e. natural, man-made, criminal and terrorist threats) and their possible combinations. The establishment of such a system requires legislative definition of its fundamental principles of operation, application of common approaches to the management of critical infrastructure security at all levels, clear identification of the principles of interaction and cooperation among state authorities, private business, society and the public. Despite the progress achieved by Ukraine in implementing the new approach, there is still a lot of work ahead to build the effective state system of critical infrastructure protection. For Ukraine, the successful implementation of the system will mean the transition to a new level of state management in this field based on modern approaches to security risks management, optimal use of available resources, and timely response to security and safety incidents and crises in resolving national security and defense issues.